Abelson, R. (Ed.). (1976). Script processing in attitude formation and decision making. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Agar, M. (1983). Microcomputers as field tools. Computers and the Humanities, 17, 19-21.

Akrich, M. (1992). The De-Scription of Technical Objects. In W. Bijker & J. Law (Eds.), Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change (pp. 205-224). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Albright, J. (1995). Online Love: Sex, Gender, and Relationships in Cyberspace. Retrieved November, 17, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Allen, D., & Guy, R. (1974). Conversation Analysis: The Sociology of Talk. The Netherlands: Mouton & Co.

Alvarez-Cáccamo, C. (1990). Rethinking conversational code-switching: codes, speech varieties, and contextualization. Paper presented at the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley.

Ang, I. (1996). Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences for a Postmodern World. London: Routledge.

Anders, P. (2000) MUDS : Cyberspace Communities. Retrieved Friday, 17 November 2000 from the World Wide Web.

Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of modernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Appleton, J. (1995). Analysing qualitative interview data: addressing issues of validity and reliability. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 997-999.

Archangeli, D., & Langendoen, D. (1997). Optimality Theory: An overview. Oxford: Blackwell.

Aristotle. (1950). “Categories” (translator: E.M. Edghill), in W.D. Ross (ed.), The Works of Aristotle Translated into English, Vol.1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Atkinson, D., & Ulevich, J. (2000). Digital Government: The Next Step To Reengineering The Federal Government. Paper presented at the Progressive Policy Institute, Technology and new Economy Project, Washington D.C.

Audi, R. (1998). Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge. London: Routledge.

Auslander, M. (1997, May 5-6). Customization Lite. Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems. Paper presented at the Proceedings of The Sixth Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

Austin, J. (1962). How to do things with words. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Austin, J. (1975). How to Do Things with Words. (2nd ed.). Boston: Harvard University Press.

Ayer, A. (1968). The Origin of Pragmatism. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper.

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The Dialogical Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, M. (1994). The Bakhtin Reader. London: Edward Arnold.

Barber, C. (1972). The Story of Language (2nd ed.). London: Pan.

Barnes, D., & Todd, F. (1977). Communication and learning in small groups. Boston: Routledge.

Barr, T. (2000). The Changing Face Of Australia's Media And Communications. St Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin.

Barthes, R. (1970). Mythologies. Paris: Seuil.

Barthes, R. (1972). Critical Essays (R. Howard, Trans.). Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press.

Barthes, R. (1975). S/Z (R. Miller, Trans.). London: Cape.

Barthes, R. (1977). The Death of the Author (S. Heath, Trans.). London: Fontana.

Barthes, R. (1978). A Lover's Discourse: Fragments. (R. Howard, Trans.). New York: Hill and Wang.

Barthes, R. (1981). Theory of the Text: Untying The Text. London: Routledge.

Bauer, L. (1979). Some thoughts on dependency grammar. Linguistics, 17, 301-315.

Baym, N. (1993). Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating Community: Inside a Computer-Mediated Fan Culture. Journal of Folklore Research, 30(2/3), 143-177.

Baym, N. (Ed.). (1998). The Talk of Fandom: The Importance of the Social Practices of Soap Opera Fans in a Computer-Mediated Discussion Group. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press Inc.

Bays, H. (2000). Framing and face in Internet exchanges: A socio-cognitive approach [PhD. Paper]. Retrieved November, 10, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Bechar-Israeli, H. (1998). From <Bonehead> TO <cLoNehEAd>: NICKNAMES, PLAY, AND IDENTITY ON INTERNET RELAY CHAT <1>. Retrieved May 30, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Beck, A. (1988). Love is never enough. New York: Harper and Row.

Berelson, B. (1952). Content Analysis in Communication Research. Glencoe: Free Press.

Berge, Z., & Collins, M. (Eds.). (1995). Computer-Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom (Vol. 1-3). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Berger, A. (1998). Signs in Contemporary Culture An Introduction to Semiotics (2nd ed.). Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company.

Berger, C., & Bradac, J. (1982). Language and social knowledge. London: Edward Arnold.

Bergvall, Victoria L., Janet M. Bing, and Alice F. Freed (eds.) (1996): Rethinking language and gender research: Theory and practice. New York: Longman.

Birkerts, S. (1995). The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age. Winchester, MA: Faber and Faber Inc.

Bizzell, P. (1982). Cognition, convention and certainty: What we need to know about writing. PRE/TEXT, 3, 113-143.

Blackmer, E., & Mitton, J. (1991). Theories of monitoring and the timing of repairs in spontaneous speech. Cognition, 39, 173-194.

Blake, B. (1990). Relational grammar. London: Routledge.

Blommaert, J. (1991). How much culture is there in intercultural communication? In J. Blommaert & J. Verschueren (Eds.), The Pragmatics of Intercultural and International Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bloom, H. (2000). Global Brain. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Investigating cross-cultural pragmatics: An introductory overview. In S. Blum-Kulka & J. House & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies (pp. 1-36). Norwood, N.J: Ablex.

Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Boden, D. (1994). The Business of Talk:  Organizations in Action. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Bolter, D., & Grusin, R. (2000). Remediation -- Understanding New Media. Mass. USA: MIT Press.

Bolter, J. (1991). Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Mahwah, New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Bolter, J. (1991). The Computer, Hypertext and the History of Writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Boudourides, M. (1995, October 12-13). Social and Psychological Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication. Paper presented at the TEI of Neties '95, Piraeus, Greece.

Bourdieu, P. (1989). From the sociology of academics to the sociology of the sociological eye. Social Theory, 7(1), 32-55.

Bourdieu, P. (1989). Social space and symbolic power. Sociological Theory, 7(1), 14-25.

Bowers, J., & Churcher, J. (1988). Local and Global Structuring of Computer Mediated Communication: Developing Linguistic Perspectives on CSCW in COSMOS. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work ( CSCW).

Bradley, N. (1999). Sampling for Internet Surveys. An examination of respondent selection for Internet research. University of Westminster. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:

Bresnan, J. (2001). Lexical-Functional Syntax. Oxford: Blackwell.

Brody, F. (1999). The Medium is the Memory. In P. Lunenfeld (Ed.), The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Bromberg, H. (1996). Are MUDs communities? Identity, belonging and consciousness in virtual worlds. In Shields, R. (Ed.), Cultures of Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living Bodies, 143-152. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Brown, M. (1994). Soap Opera and Women's Talk. London: Sage.

Bruckman, A. (1992). Identity Workshops: Emergent Social and Psychological Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Reality. Retrieved Nov 2, 1992, from the World Wide Web:

Bruner, J. (1956). A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley.

Bruti, S. (1999). Approaching Writing Skills through Fairy Tales. The Internet TESL Journal, V(11).

Buckingham, D. (1987). Public Secrets: EastEnders and its Audience. London: BFI (Chapter 4: “Popular Television and its Audience”, pp. 154-201). Retrieved March, 15, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.

Butler, J. (1997). Excitable Speech, A politics of the Performative. London: Routledge.

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power. Stanford, California: Standford University Press.

Calvert, S. (2002). The Social Impact of Virtual Reality Environments. Georgetown University. Retrieved March 3, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Camballo, D., & Joseph, L. (1998). The IRC Prelude. Retrieved May 30, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Carey, J. (1985). Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Cassell, J., & Vilhjlmsson, H. (1999). Fully embodied conversational avatars: Making communicative behaviors autonomous. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems(2), 45-64.

Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Castells, M. (1997). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (Vol. 2). Blackwell: Oxford.

Castells, M. (2000). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Cavanagh, S. (1997). Content analysis: concepts, methods and applications. Nurse Researcher, 4(3), 5-16.

Chandler, D. (1999). The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Retrieved May 30, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Chandler, D. (2001). Semiotics for Beginners. Retrieved March, 20, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Chandler, D. (2001). Semiotics: The Basics. London: Routledge.

Chandler, D., & Roberts-Young, D. (1998). The Construction of Identity in the Personal Homepages of Adolescents. Retrieved June 21, 1999, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Cherny, L. (1994). Gender Differences in Text-Based Virtual Reality. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Berkeley Conference on Women and Language, Berkeley.

Cherny, L. (1995). The MUD register: conversational modes of action in a text-based virtual reality. Stanford University. Retrieved 23 April, 1998, from the World Wide Web:

Chierchia, G. (1995). Dynamics of Meaning: Anaphora, Presupposition and Syntactic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chierchia, G., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1990). Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Childress, C., & Asamen, J. (1998). The Emerging Relationship of Psychology and the Internet: Proposed Guidelines for Conducting Research. Ethics and Behavior, 8(1), 19-35.

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

Chomsky, N. (1972). Language and Mind. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representations: behavioral and brain sciences. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Chomsky, N. (2000). Language and Mind: Current Thoughts on Ancient Problems (Part 1). Retrieved November 04, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Chomsky, N. (2001). Censored 2001: 25 Years of Censored News and the Top Censored Stories of the Year. New York City: Seven Stories Press.

Churchill, E., & Bly, S. (1999). Virtual Environments at Work: ongoing use of MUDs in the Workplace. Paper presented at the WACC'99, San Francisco, CA.

Churchill, E., & Bly, S. (2000). Culture Vultures: Considering Culture and Communication in Virtual Environments [Internet]. Retrieved June 30, 2000, from the World Wide Web: papers/churchill01.pdf  

Cicognani, A. (1996, May 30, 1999). Which language for Cyberspace? Paper presented at the Collaborative Virtual Environments 1996.

Cicognani, A. (1997). On the linguistic nature of Cyberspace and Virtual Communities [Special Journal Issue]. Retrieved 30th May, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Cicognani, A. (1998). A Linguistic Characterisation of Design in Text-Based Virtual Worlds. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Cicognani, A. (2000). Language and Design in Text-Based Virtual Worlds. Journal of Network and Computer Applications (23), 1-28.

Clark, H. (1973). The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: a critique of languagestatistics in psychological research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 12, 335-359.

Clark, H., & Shaefer, E. (1989). Contributing to discourse. Cognitive Science, 13, 259-294.

Coates, J. (Ed.). (1998). Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.

Coates, J. (1998). Gossip revisited: language in all-female groups. In J. Coates (Ed.), Language and Gender: A Reader (pp. 226-253). Oxford: Blackwell.

Cobb, N. (1996, Tuesday 13 August). Welcome to the Girl Wide Web. The Boston Globe, pp. 35-36.

Collins, M., & Murphy, K. (1999). Communication Conventions in Instructional Electronic Chats [Internet]. First Monday. Retrieved 8.30.1999, from the World Wide Web:

Comber, B., Kamler, B., & Cook, J. (1998). Introduction: Critical Discourse Analysis, or Life After the Linguistic Turn Discourse. Discourse, 18, 325-327.

Comte, A. (2002). Use of Feminist Literary Theory in Developing a Critical Language for Hypertext. The Journal of the Australian Association of Writing Programs, 6(1).

Cruttenden, A. (1986). Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (1985). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Crystal, D. (1987). Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (Ed.). (1992). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press.

Cyberrdewd. (1999). IRC on AusNet - an example of a virtual community [Internet]. Retrieved May 30, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Danet, B. (1998). Text as Mask: Gender, Play, and Performance on the Internet in Steve. In S. G. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety 2.0. Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community. London: Sage.

Danks, J., & End, L. (1985). Processing strategies for reading and listening. Retrieved April, 3, 2001, from the World Wide Web:


Davies, S. (2001). Semiotic Analysis of Teenage Magazine Front Covers. Retrieved May, 17, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

de Saussure, F. (1916). Course in General Linguistics (W. Baskin, Trans.). London: Fontana/Collins.

December, J. (1993, July, 8). Characteristics of Oral Culture in Discourse on the Net. Paper presented at the Twelfth annual Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition, University, Park, Pennsylvania.

Denzin, N. (1999). Cybertalk and the Method of Instances. In S. Jones (Ed.), Doing Internet Research: Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Desser, D. (2000). Gender Morphing in Cyberspace. University of Michigan. Retrieved November, 04, from the World Wide Web:

Dewey, J. (1966). Democracy and Education. New York: Free Press.

Dillon, A., & Gushrowski, A. (2000). Genre and the Web: Is the personal home page the first uniquely digital genre. Journal of The American Society for Information Science, 51(2), 202-205.

Dingley, K. (2001). Using Conversational Analysis to ascertain whether commercially available synchronous messengers can support real world ad hoc interactions. University of Portsmouth. Retrieved March, 2, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Dixon, R. (1997). The Rise and fall of Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Donath, J. (1998, 21 February). Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community. Retrieved, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Donath, J. (1999). Identity and deception in the virtual community. In P. Kollock & M. Smith (Eds.), Communities in Cyberspace (pp. 29-59). London: Routledge.

Döring, N. (2002). Personal home pages on the Web: A review of research. Retrieved March, 3, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Dryer, M. S. (Ed.). (1995). Frequency and Pragmatically Unmarked Word Order. London: John Benjamins.

Eagleton, T. (1983). Literary theory: an introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (1995). Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender and class from Belten High. In B. Mary & H. Kira (Eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Culturally Constructed Self (pp. 469-507). New York: Routledge.

Eco, U. (1979). The Role of the Reader. London: Hutchinson Publishing Group.

Eco, U. (1986). Travels in Hyperreality (W. Weaver, Trans.). London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Eco, U. (1995). The Search for The Perfect Language (J. Fentress, Trans.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Edwards, B. (1979). The Tagmemic Contribution to Composition Teaching. Occasional Papers in Composition Theory and History, No. 2.

Edwards, J. (1985). Language, society and identity. Oxford: Blackwell.

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell.

Eisenstein, E. (1993). The printing revolution in early modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Emerson, C. (1981). Discourse in the Novel (M. Holquist, Trans.). The dialogic Imagination (pp. 239-422). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Ess, C. (Ed.). (1996). Philosophical Perspectives on Computer-Mediated Communication. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Fairclough, N. (1982). Review of Bolinger, Language - the loaded weapon. Language in Society, 11, 110-120.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.

Featherstone, M. (1996). Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment (Theory, Culture & Society). London: Sage Publications.

Ferrara, K., Brunner, H., & Whittemore, G. (1991). Interactive Written Discourse as an Emergent Register. Written Communication, 8(1), 8-34.

Fillmore, C. (1976). Topics in lexical semantics. Current issues in linguistic theory. In Roger W. Cole, (ed.) Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Firbas, J. (1992). Functional Sentence Perspective in Written and Spoken Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Firth, J. (1957). Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. London: Oxford University Press.

Firth, John Rupert. (1964). The Tongue of Men and Speech. (With Editor's Preface by Peter Strevens) Oxford University Press. (Reprinted in 1986 by Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.)

Fish, S. (1980). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press.

Fish, S. (1990). Doing What Comes Naturally: Change, Rhetoric and the Practice of Theory in Literary and Legal Studies. North Carolina: Duke.

Fishman, P. (1978). Interaction: The work women do. In B. Thorne & C. Kramara & N. Henly (Eds.), Language, Gender and Society (Vol. 25, pp. 89-101). Cambridge: Newbury House Publishers.

Fishman, P. (1980). Conversational insecurity. In H. Giles & W. Robinson & P. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 127-132). New York: Pergamon Press.

Fiumara, G. (1995). The Other Side of Language: A Philosophy of Listening. London: Routledge.

Fiumara, G. (1995). Metaphoric Process: Connections between Language and Life. London: Routledge.

Foucault, M. (1969). What is an Author? In R. C. Davis & R. Schleifer (Eds.), Contemporary Literary Criticism (pp. 262-275). New York: Longman.

Foucault, M. (1994). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. Vancouver, WA: Vintage Books.

Fouser, R. (2001). Culture, Computer Literacy, and the Meida in Creating Public Attitudes toward CMC in Japan and Korea. In C. Ess (Ed.), Culture Technology Communication: Towards an Intercultural Global Village. New York: State University of New York Press.

Frankel, M., & Siang, S. (1999). Ethical and Legal Aspects of Human Subjects Research in Cyberspace (A Report of A Workshop. June 10-11): American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Fraser, N. (1994). Dependency grammar. In R. Asher (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (pp. 860-864). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Freeze, J. (1998). Introducing WebTV. Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press.

Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Fromkin, V., & Rodman, R. (1998). An Introduction to Language (6 ed.). Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Gadamer, H. (2000). The Beginning of Philosophy (R. Coltman, Trans.). Warsaw: Continuum International Publishing Ltd.

Galegher, J., & Kraut, R. (1994). Computer-mediated communication for intellectual teamwork: An experiment in group writing. Information Systems Research, 5(2), 110-138.

Gallagher, D. (2002, Sunday, November 10). Mr. Qaddafi, You've Got Mail: Hope 2cu Soon Again in the Desert. The New York Times, pp. 7.

Garcia, A., & Jacobs, J. (1999). The Eyes of the Beholder: Understanding the Turn-Taking System in Quasi-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication. Research-on-Language-and-Social-Interaction(32), 337-367.

Garfinkel, H., Lynch, M., & Livingston, E. (1972). Common Sense Knowledge of Social Structures: The Documentary Method of Interpretation. In J. Manis & B. Meltzer (Eds.), Symbolic Interaction: A Reader in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Gass, S., & Neu, J. (Eds.). (1995). Speech Acts across Cultures. Challenges to Communication in a Second  Language. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, University of Luton.

Gates, R., & McDaniel, C. (1999). Contemporary Marketing Research (4th ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.

Gazdar, G., Klein, E., Pullum, G., & Sag, I. (1985). Generalized Phrase Structure Grammars. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (2000). Runaway World. How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. New York: Routledge.

Giese, M. (1998). Constructing a Virtual Geography: Narratives of Space in a Text-Based Environment. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 22(2), 152-176.

Giese, M. (1998). Self Without Body: Textual Self-Representation in an Electronic Community. First Monday, 4(3).

Gilbert, P. (2000). On Space, Sex and Stalkers. Retrieved Thursday, 2 November, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Giles, D. (2000). Illusions of Immortality: A Psychology of Fame and Celebrity. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Giles, H., &. Powesland, P. (1975). Speech style and social evaluation. London: Academic Press.

Giles, H., & Clair, R. (1979). Language and Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.

Giles, H., Clair, R., & Klaus, S. (1979). Social Markers in Speech. London: Cambridge University Press.

Giordano, R. (2000). The Genre of Electronic Communication: A Virtual Barbecue Revisited Providence. Brown University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved October, 10, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.

Goffman, E. (1971). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Penguin Books.

Goffman, E. (1972). Relations in Public. New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis. New York: Harper and Row.

Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Goldberg, A. (1995). Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goodwin, C. (1981). Conversational organization: Interaction between speaker and hearer. New York: Academic Press.

Grabe, W. (1992). What every ESL teacher should know about reading in English. In R. Rodriguez & R. Ortega & F. Macarthur (Eds.), New directions in foreign language teaching theory and practice. Salamanca: Universidad.

Grandin, T. (1999). Social Problems: Understanding Emotions and Developing Talents. Colourado State University. Retrieved January 21, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Greimas, Algirdas Julien. (1990). The Social Sciences: A Semiotic View. Trans. Paul Perron and Frank Collins. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Gruber, H. (1996). Aspects of power and communication in scholarly e-mail discussion lists. Excluding practices and peer-group formation. Paper presented at the 1st Knowledge and Discourse Conference, Hong Kong.

Grusin, B. (2000). Remediation -- Understanding New Media. Mass. USA: MIT Press.

Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. Denzin & S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks,Ca: Sage.

Gudykunst, W., & Kim, Y. (1997). Communicating With Strangers: An Approach To
Intercultural Communication.
New York & London: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2001). Asian American ethnicity and communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guy, R. (1974). Conversation Analysis: The Sociology of Talk. The Hague: Mouton and Company.

Habermas, Jürgen (1992b) “On Morality, Law, Civil Disobedience and Modernity”, in P. Dews (ed.) Autonomy and Solidarity: Interviews with Jürgen Habermas, revised edn. London: Verso.

Halliday, M. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. (1985a). Systemic background. In J. Benson & W. Greaves (Eds.), Systemic Perspectives on Discourse (Vol. 1, pp. 1 -15). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Halliday, M. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold.

Hamman, R. (1996). Cyborgasms: Cybersex among Multiple-Selves and Cyborgs in the narrow-Bandwidth space of America Online chatrooms. Unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.

Hamman, R. (1998). One Hour in the eWorld Hot Tub: a brief ethnographic project in cyberspace. Retrieved August, 3, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Hamman, R. (1998). Rhizome@Internet using the Internet as an example of Deleuze and Guattari's “Rhizome”. Retrieved August, 31, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Hamman, R. (1998). The Role of Fantasy in the Construction of the Online Other: a selection of interviews and participant observations from cyberspace. Retrieved August 31, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Hamman, R. (1999). Computer Networks Linking Network Communities: A study of the Effects of Computer Networks Use upon Pre-existing Communities. Retrieved August 30, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in Practice (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Harasim, L., Hiltz, S., Teles, L., & Turoff, M. (1995). Learning Networks: A Field Guide to Teaching and Learning Online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Harnad, S. (1991). Post-Gutenberg Galaxy: The Fourth Revolution in the Means of Production of Knowledge. Public-Access Computer Systems Review, 2(1), 39 - 53.

Harnad, S. (2001). Back to the Oral Tradition: Comments on Roger Chartier's Paper: “Readers and Readings in the Electronic Age”. Retrieved May, 29, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Harrison, T., & Stephen, T. (1995). The electronic journal as the heart of an online disciplinary community. Library Trends (43), 592-608.

Harvey, B. (1998). Computer Hacking and Ethics [Internet]. Retrieved April, 08, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Hawisher, G., & Moran, C. (1993). “Electronic Mail and the Writing Instructor.” College English 55.6 627-643.

Hayles, K. (1999). How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hebdige, D. (1999). The Function of subculture. In S. During (Ed.). The Cultural Studies Reader (Vol. 2nd, pp. 441-450). New York: Routledge.

Hegel, G.W.F. (1961). The Phenomenology of Mind. (trans.J.B. Baillie). Allen & Unwin.

Henderson, G., & Brown, C. (1997, March 31). Glossary of Literary Theory. University of Toronto. Retrieved March 31, 1997, from the World Wide Web:

Heritage, J., Atkinson, J. (1984) “Introduction”. In: J.M. Atkinson, J. Heritage, eds. Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1-15.

Herring, S. (1994). Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication: Bringing Familiar Baggage to the New Frontier. Retrieved April, 29, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Herring, S. (2002). Computer-mediated Discourse. In D. Schiffrin & D. Tannen & H. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University.

Hiltz, S., & Turoff, M. (1978). The Networked Nation: human communication via computer. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Høivik, H. (1995). The Digital Field: Library models and professional roles. Department of Journalism, Library and Information Science Oslo College. Retrieved May, 16, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Holland, N. (1968). The Dynamics of Literary Response. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holland, N. (1973). Poems in Persons: An Introduction to the Psychoanalysis of Literature. Cybereditions. Retrieved June, 19, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Holland, N. (1975). 5 Readers Reading. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Holland, N. (1992). The Critical I. NY: Columbia University Press.

Holland, N. (2000). The Internet Regression. Retrieved July, 6, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Holmes, Janet. 2000. (ed.) Gendered speech in social context: Perspectives from gown and town. Wellington: Victoria University Press.

Holquist, M. (1986). Introduction. Speech Genres and Other Late Essays by M. M. Bakhti. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Holquist, M. (1990). Dialogism: Bakhtin and his world. New York: Routledge.

Holtzman, S. (1995). Digital Mantras: The Languages of Abstract and Virtual Worlds. Boston: MIT Press.

Hopper, R. (1991). Hold the phone. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Horvath, B., & Eggins, S. (1995). Opinion texts in conversation. In P. Fries & M. Gregory (Eds.), Discovery in Society: Systemic Functional Perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 29-46). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Howell-Richardson, C., & Mellar, H. (1996). A Methodology for the Analysis of Patterns of Participation within Computer Mediated Communication Courses. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved July, 3, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Hu, W. (1996). “Inverted” Sentences, Pragmatics, and the Emergent Grammar. [Ph.D dissertation]. Retrieved 8th October, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Hudson, D. (1995). Word Meaning. Retrieved Oct 8, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Huttar, G. (1996). Review of the grammar of space, by Svorou, Soteria. Notes on Linguistics(74), 34-36.

Hymes, D. (1974). Ways of speaking. In R. Bauman & J. Sherzer (Eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ihde, D. (1973). Postphenomenology: Essays in the Postmodern Context. Chicago: Northwestern University.

Ihde, D. (1991). Instrumental Realism: The Interface between Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Technology. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Iser, W. (1974). The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Iser, W. (1978). The Act of Reading. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Iser, W. (1989). Prospecting: From Reader Response to Literary Anthropology (Vol. ix). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Iser, W. (2000). The Range of Interpretation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Jakobson, R. (1960). Concluding statement: Linguistics and poetics. In T. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in language (pp. 350-377). New York: Wiley.

Jakobson, R. (1980). Framework of Language. University of Michigan.

James, W. (1907). Pragmatism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Jardine, L. (1996). Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance. New York: Doubleday.

Jasper, M. (1994). Issues in phenomenology for researchers of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 309 314.

Jefferson, G. (1972). Side sequences. In D. Sudnow (Ed.), Studies in social interaction (pp. 294-338). New York: Free Press.

Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture. New York and London: Routledge.

Jenlink, P., & Carr, A. (1996). Conversation as a medium for change in education. Educational Technology. Retrieved March, 8, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Jones, S. (Ed.). (1995). CyberSociety: Computer-mediated communication and community. London: Sage publications.

Jones, S. (1997). The Internet and its Social Landscape. In S. Jones (Ed.), Virtual Culture: Identity and Communication in Cyberspace. London: Sage.

Kehoe, C., & Pitkow, J. (1996). Surveying the Territory. GVU's Five WWW User Survey. The World Wide Web Journal, 1(3).

Kempson, R. (1988). Grammar and conversational principles. In F. Newmeyer (Ed.), Linguistics, The Cambridge Survey (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kevin, Robins. (1995). “Cyberspace and the world we live in,” In M. Featherstone and R. Burows, (Eds)  Cyberspace, cyberbodies, cyberpunk: Cultures of technological embodiment. London: SAGE Publications

King, S. (1996). Researching Internet communities: Proposed ethical guidelines for the reporting of the results. The Information Society, 12(2), 119-127.

Kollock, P. (1996). Managing the virtual commons: cooperation and conflict in computer communities. In S. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication:  Linguistic, Social, and Cross-Cultural Perspective (pp. 109-128). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Kolstrup, S. (2000). Narratives: Different Narratives, Different Theories for Different Media? In L.  Qvortrup (Ed.).  Virtual Interaction: Interaction in <Virtual Inhabited 3D Worlds. (pp. 275 - 291). London: Springer.

Korzybski, A. (1958). Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (Fourth ed.). Lakeville CT (now Brooklyn, NY): International Non-aristotelian Library Publishing Co.

Kristeva, Julia. (1980)  Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art, ed. by Leon S. Roudiez, trans. by Thomas Gora, Alice Jardine and Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kristeva, J. (1984). Revolution in Poetic Language. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kristeva, J. (1986). Word, dialogue, and the novel. In T. Moi (Ed.), The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kristeva, J. (1987). In the beginning was love: psychoanalysis and faith (A. Goldhammer, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Kristeva, J. (1989). Language--the unknown : an initiation into linguistics (A. Menke, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Labov, W., & Waletzky, J. (1967). Narrative analysis: oral versions of personal experiences. In J. Helm (Ed.), Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts. American Ethnological Society, proceedings of Spring Meeting 1996 (pp. 12-14). Washington, DC: University of Washington Press.

Landow, G. (1987). Context32: A Web of English Literature. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Landow, G. (1992). Hypertext The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Landow, G. (1994). Hypertext and Critical Theory. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Landow, G. (1997). Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Landow, G., & Delaney, P. (Eds.). (1993). The Digital Word: Text-Based Computing in Humanities. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Langer, E. (1978). Rethinking the role of thought in social interaction. In J. Harvey & W. Ickles & R. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Langer, E. (1989). Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Langston, L. (1996). Scholarly Communication and Electronic Publication: Implications for Research, Advancement, and Promotion. Riverside: University of California.

Larsen, E. (2002). Internet Cafe Guide (2 ed.): Internet Cafe Guide.

Lea, M., O'Shea, T., Fung, P., & Spears, R. (1992). “Flaming” in computer-mediated communication: Observations, explanations, implications. In M. Lea (Ed.), Contexts of Computer- Mediated Communication (pp. 89-112). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Lea, M., & Spears, R. (1991). Computer-mediated communication, de-individuation and group decision-making. International Journal of Man- Machine Studies, 39, 283-301.

Lee, A., & Poynton, C. (Eds.). (2000). Culture & Text: Discourse and methodology in social research and cultural studies. NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.

Lefebvre, H. (1995). Introduction to Modernity: Twelve Preludes (J. Moore, Trans.). London: Verso.

Levinson, S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Levinson, S. (Ed.). (1996). Rethinking linguistic relativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, J. (2000). Virtually a star - Japanese company creates digital teen idol. Retrieved April, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Lewis, L. (1992). The Adoring Audience. London: Routledge.

Lincoln, Y., & Denzin, N. (1994). The seventh moment: Out of the past. In Y. Lincoln (Ed.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 1047-1065). London: Sage Publications.

Lisette, C., & Ciskowski, D. (1995). MUDS: Exploring Virtual Worlds on the Internet. New York: MacMillan Computer Pub.

Lury, Celia. (1996) Consumer Culture, Cambridge: Polity

Lynch, K. (2002). Timeline of net related terms and concepts. Retrieved February 5, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Lyons, J. (1981). Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ma, R. (1996). Computer-mediated conversations as a new dimension of intercultural communication between East Asian and North American college students. In S. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication:  Linguistic, Social, and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. (pp. 173-185). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Mabry, E. (2000). Framing Flames: The structure of argumentative messages on the net. Retrieved August 22, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Malinowski, B. (1923). “The problem of meaning in primitive languages”. Supplement 1 (pp. 296-336) to C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards. The Meaning of Meaning. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Manning, C., & Schütze, H. (1999). Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mantovani, G. (1995). Virtual reality as a communication environment: consensual hallucination, fiction and possible selves. Human Relations, 48(6), 669-683.

Mantovani, G. (1996). New communication environments: from everyday to virtual. London: Taylor & Francis.

Mar, J. (2001). Online on time: The language of Internet. In D. Gibbs & K. Krause (Eds.), Cyberlines: Languages and Cultures of the Internet. Albert Park, Australia: James Nicholas Publishers.

Marby, E. (2000) Framing Flames: The structure of argumentative messages on the net. Department of Communication, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved June, 20, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Marshall, G. (Ed.). (1994). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mason, R. (1992). Evaluating Methodologies for Computer Conferencing Applications. In A. Kaye (Ed.), Collaborative Learning Through Computer Conferencing (pp. 105-116). Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Maynor, N. (1994). The Language of Electronic Mail: Written Speech? American Dialect Society, Centennial Usage Studies Series.

McCarthy, C. (1999). Reading Theory as a Microcosm of the Four Skills. The Internet TESL Journal (5), 5.

McConnell-Ginet, S. (1990). Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McConnell-Ginet, S., & Eckert, P. (1995). Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender, and class from Belten High. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated; Language and the socially constructed self. London: Routledge.

McElhearn, K. (2000). Writing Conversation: An Analysis of Speech Events in E-mail Mailing Lists. Aston University Language Studies Unit. Retrieved August, 19, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

McGinn, C. (1999, November, 4). Freud Under Analysis. The New York Times, pp. 20.

McLuhan, M. (1962). The Gutenberg galaxy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Mead, G. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mena, J. (1999). Data Mining Your Website. Woburn, MA: Digital Pres.

Meyrowitz, J. (1985). No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social. New York: Oxford University Press.

Miles, M. A. & Huberman, A.  (1994b).  Data management and analysis methods.  In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 428-444). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Miller, G. R., & Steinberg, M. (1975). Between people: A new analysis of interpersonal communication. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

Mitchell, W. (1996). City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Modleski, T. (1982). Loving With a Vengeance, Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women. Hamden, Conn: Archan Books.

Moerman, M., & Sacks, H. (1988). Talking Culture: Ethnography and Conversation Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Mogge, D. (1999). Seven Years of Tracking Electronic Publishing: The ARL Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists. Library Hi Tech, 17(1), 17-25.

Morgan, M. (2000). A First Look at Conversational Maintenance by Men and Women in Computer Discussions: The Maintenance and the Meaning. Bemidji, MN: Dept. of English Bemidji State University.

Morrill, G. (1994). Type Logical Grammar: Categorial Logic of Signs. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Morris, C. (1971). Foundations of the theory of signs. In Writings on the Theory of Signs. The Hague: Mouton.

Murphy, K., & Collins, M. (1997, March 24-28). Communication conventions in instructional electronic chats. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Murphy, L., & Collins, P. (1999). Mauri Communication Conventions in Instructional Electronic Chats. Retrieved, August 30, from the World Wide Web:

Nadin, Mihai (1977). Sign and Fuzzy Automata (Max Bense, Ed.). In Semiosis, Heft 1, 19-26.

Natoli, J. (1987). Tracing Literary Theory. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Nelson, T. (1965). The Hypertext. Paper presented at the International Documentation Federation Annual Conference, Washington, D.C.

Nelson, T. (1993). Literary Machines. Sausalito, California: Mindful Press.

Neuage, T. (1995). Graffiti as Text. Honours Thesis. Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Newby, G. B. (1993). The Maturation of norms for computer-mediated communication, Internet Research, Volume 3, Number 4, pp. 30-38.

Niese, A. (2001). ICQ Celebrates Five Years. Retrieved November 15, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Nightingale, V. (1996). Studying Audiences: The Shock of the Real. London: Routledge.

Noble, W., & Davidson, I. (1996). Human evolution, language and mind: a psychological and archaeological inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nofsinger, R. (1991). Everyday Conversation. London: Sage Publications.

North, T. (1994). The Internet and Usenet Global Computer Networks: An investigation of their culture and its effects on new users. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:

Nua. (2000, May 5). Nua Internet Surveys. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:

Nunamaker, J., Dennis, R., Valacich, S., Vogel, D., & George, J. (1993). Electronic meeting systems to support group work. In R. Baecker (Ed.), Readings in groupware and computer- supported cooperative work, assisting human-human collaboration. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.

Ocock, M. (2002). Why are text messages so popular? Retrieved July 5, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Ong, W. (1993). Orality and Literacy: the Technologizing of the Word. London: Routledge.

Oshagan, H. (1995). Gender, Pseudonyms, and CMC: Masking Identities and Baring Souls. Paper presented at the 45th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Albuqurqeu, New Mexico..

Park, H. (2002). The Electronic Journal of Communication. Retrieved November, 15, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Parks, M. R. (1995). Webs of influence in interpersonal relationships. In C. R. Berger & M. E. Burgoon (Eds.), Communication and social influence processes (pp. 155-178). East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Parret, H. (1989). Semiotics Theory. In P. Perron & F. Collins (Eds.), Introduction to Paris School. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Parrish, R. (2000). Conversation Analysis of Internet Chatrooms. Retrieved July 15, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Partee, B. (1980). Montague Grammar. Journal of Philosophy, 77(6), 278-312.

Pastore, M. (2001, March 8). Physicians’ Internet Use Excludes Clinical Application. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2002, from the World Wide Web:,1323,10101_708321,00.html

Pennycuick, D., & Murphy, R. (1988). The impact of graded tests. London: The Falmer Press.

Perrolle, J. (1998). Computers and Social Change: Information, Property, and Power. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Retrieved Sep 20, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Perron, P., & Collins, F. (Eds.). (1988). Paris School Semiotics. Vol. 1: Theory. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Pierce, C. (1966). Selected Writings. Dover: Dover Press.

Pike, K. (1983). Tagmemics, Discourse, and Verbal Art. Richard Bailey (Ed.). Ann Arbor: Michigan Studies in the Humanities

Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Pomerantz, A. (1978). Compliment responses. Notes on the co-operation of multiple constraints. In J. Schenkein (Ed.), Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction (pp. 79-112). New York: Academic Press.

Pomerantz, A. (1984). Giving a source or basis: The practice in conversation of telling “how I know”. Journal of Pragmatics, 8, 607-625.

Poster, M. (Ed.). (1988). Jean Baudrillard: Selected Writings. London: Polity Press.

Poster, M. (1990). The Mode of Information. Oxford: Blackwell.

Poster, M. (1995). The Second Media Age. Chicago: Chicago Press.

Poster, M. (1999). CyberDemocracy: Internet and the Public Sphere. Oxford: Blackwell.

Poster, M. (2001). What's the Matter with the Internet? Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Prince, E. (1981). Toward a taxonomy of given/new information. In P. Cole (Ed.), Radical pragmatic. NY: Academic Press.

Propp, V. (1968). Morphology of the folk tale (2 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press

Raith, J. (1987). Sprachgemeinschaft (speech community). In U. Ammon & D. Dittmar & K. Mattheier (Eds.), Sociolinguistics. An international hand-book of the science of language and society (pp. 200-207). Berlin: de Gruyter.

Reid, E. (1991). Electropolis: Communication and Community on Internet Relay Chat. Retrieved May, 12, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Reid, E. (1993). Electronic Chat:  Social Issues on Internet Relay Chat. Media Information Australia, 67, 62-79.

Reid, E. (1996). Virtual Worlds: Culture and Imagination. In S. G. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety: Computer Mediated Communication and Community. Thousand Oaks. Calif.: Sage Publications.

Reid, E. (1996). Informed Consent in the Study of Online Communities: A reflection on the Effects of Computer-Mediated Social Research. The Information Society, 12, 169-174.

Rheingold, H. (1985). Tools for Thought. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Rheingold, H. (1991). Virtual Reality. New York: Summit.

Rheingold, H. (1993). The Virtual Community. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

Rheingold, H. (1994). A slice of life in my virtual community. In L. Harasim (Ed.), Global Networks: Computers and International Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rheingold, H. (1995). The Virtual Community. UTNE Reader, 68, 60-64.

Rheingold, H. (1999). Rethinking Virtual Communities. Retrieved, from the World Wide Web:

Rheingold, H. (2000). Community Development In The Cybersociety of the Future. Retrieved Nov 2, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Rice, D. (1990). Computer-mediated communication system network data: theoretical concerns and empirical examples. Man-Machine Studies, 32, 627-647.

Rice, R., & Love, G. (1987). Electronic Emotion: Socioemotional content in a computer-mediated communication network. Communication Research, 14(1), 85-108.

Richmond, J., & McCroskey, V. (1995). Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Richmond, P., & McCroskey, C. (1995). Nonverbal Communication in Human Relations (Third ed.). Boston: Allyn & Baco.

Ricoeur, P. (1981). Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences (J. Thompson Trans.). In J. Thompson (Ed.), Essays on Language, Action and Interpretation (pp. 197-221). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rivera, K., Cooke, N., & Bauhs, J. (2002). The Effects Of Emotional Ikons On Remote Communication. Retrieved Sep 4, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Roberts, J. (1992). Review of Modern transformational grammar by Jacobsen, Bent. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia, 23(1), 85-87.

Roberts, L., Smith, L., & Pollock, C. (1996). Social Interaction in MOOs: Constraints and Opportunities of a Text-Based Virtual Environment for Interpersonal Communication. Paper presented at the Virtual Information Digital Workshop, The Centre for Research in Culture and Communication, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.

Roberts, P. (2000). Protecting the participant in the contested private/public terrain of Internet research: Can computer ethics make a difference? AiCE 2000. Retrieved March 11, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Roberts-Young, D., & Chandler, D. (1998). The Construction of Identity in the Personal Homepages of Adolescents. Retrieved June, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Robins, K. (1995). Cyberspace and the World We Live. In. M. Featherstone and R. Burrows (Eds.), Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. (pp. 135-155). London, Thousand Oaks, and New Delhi: Sage Publications,

Rola, R. (2000, 28 June 2000). Cyberspace as A Political Public Sphere. Paper presented at the 3rd Philosophy Faculty Lecture Series, Davao City, Philippines.

Romaine, S. (Ed.). (1982b). Sociolinguistic Variation in Speech Communities. London: Edward Arnold.

Rommetveit, R. (1972). Language games, deep syntactic structures, and hermeneutic circles. In J. Israel & H. Tajfel (Eds.), The Contet of Social Psychology: A Critical Assessment (pp. 212-257). London: Academic Press.

Rommetveit, R. (1972). Deep structure of sentences versus message structure, Some critical remarks on current paradigms, and suggestions of an alternative approach. Norwegian Journal of Linguistic, 26, 3-32.

Rommetveit, R. (1974). On Message Structure A Framework for the Study of Langauge and Communication. London: Wiley.

Rosenblatt, L. (1938). Literature as exploration (Third ed.). New York: Noble and Noble.

Rosenthal, S. (2000). The Tao Te Ching: An Introduction. Retrieved September 23, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Ruberg, L., Moore, D., & Taylor, C. (1996). Student participation, interaction, and regulation in a computer-mediated communication environment: A qualitative study. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15(3), 243-268.

Ruedenberg, L., & Rosenbaum-Tamari, Y. (1995). Virtual virtuosos: Play and performance at the computer keyboard. Electronic Journal of Communication, 4(4).

Russell, P. (1983). The Global Brain: speculations on the evolutionary leap to planetary consciousness. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Saarinen, L. (1995). The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sacks, H. (1992), Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell

Sacks, H., Emanuel, S., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50, 696-735.

Sapir, E. (1929). The Status of Linguistics as a Science. In D. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Culture, Language and Personality. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Sarte, J. (1949). What Is Literature and Other Essays (J. Mehlman, Trans.). Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schaap, F. (2001). The Words That Took Us There. Ethnography in a Virtual Reality. Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publisher.

Schegloff, E. (1979). The relevance of repair to syntax-for-conversation. In T. Givón (Ed.), Syntax and Semantics 12: Discourse and Syntax (pp. 261-286). New York: Academic Press.

Schegloff, E. (1987). Recycled turn beginnings: a precise repair mechanism in conversation's turn-taking organisation. In G. Button & J. Lee (Eds.), Talk and Social Organisation (pp. 70-85). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.

Schegloff, E. (1991). Reflections on talk and social structure. In D. Zimmerman (Ed.), Talk and Social Structure:  Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Schegloff, E., Jefferson, G., & Sacks, H. (1977). The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language, 53, 361-382.

Schegloff, E., & Sacks, H. (1973). Opening up closings. Semiotica, 7, 289-327.

Schiano, D. (1997). Convergent Methodologies in Cyber-Psychology: A Case Study. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 29(2), 270-273.

Schickel, R. (1985). Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse Markers. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schiffrin, D. (1997). Approaches to Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.

Schilb, J. (1990). On Personally Constructing “Social Construction” A Response to Richard Rorty. JAC, 10(1).

Schneider, S. (1997). Expanding the Public Sphere through Computer-Mediated Communication: Political Discussion about Abortion in a Usenet Newsgroup. Retrieved Nov 2, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Searle, J. (1965). What is a Speech Act. In A. Martinich (Ed.), The Philosophy of Language (pp. 130-140). Oxford: Oxford.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts: an essay in the philosophy of language. London: Cambridge University Press.

Seiter, E., Borchers, H., & Kreutzner, W. (1989). Don't treat us like we’re so stupid and naive: Toward an ethnography of soap opera viewers. In E. Seiter & H. Borchers & W. Kreutzner (Eds.), Remote Control (pp. 223-247). New York: Routledge.

Shank, G. (1993, March 22). Abductive Multiloguing: The Semiotic Dynamics Of Navigating The Net. Arachnet Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture. Retrieved August 3, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Shawver, L. (1996). Wittgenstein's language games (Message Board). Retrieved Jun 2, 1998, from the World Wide Web:

Shuy, R. (1998). Dialects: How They Differ. In V. Clark & P. Eschholz & A. Rosa (Eds.), Language: Readings in Language and Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Siemieniuch, C., & Sinclair, M. (1994). Concurrent engineering and CSCW: The human factor. In Computer support for cooperative work. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Silverman, D. (2000). Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.

Singh, R. (Ed.). (1996). Towards a Critical Sociolinguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Slembrouck, Stef. (2002). What is meant by "discourse analysis"? Retrieved October 10, 2001, from the World Wide Web.

Sloman, A. (1978). The computer revolution in philosophy. London: Harvester Press.

Spears, R. (1992). Social influence and the influence of the “social” in computer-mediated communication. In M. Lea (Ed.), Contexts of computer-mediated communication (pp. 30-65). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Spears, R., Lea, M., & Lee, S. (1990). De-individuation and group polarization in computer-mediated communication. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 121-134.

Spender, D. (1980). Man Made Language. London: Harper Collins.

Spender, D. (1995). Nattering on the Net, Women, Power and Cyberspace. North Melbourne: Spinifew Press Ltd.

Spooner, M., & Yancey, K. (1996). Postings on a genre of e-mail. The Eng328 Archives. Retrieved October 24, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Still, J. (2001). Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: The Muddle of Understanding as a Mental Process. Retrieved Nov 5, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Stocking, G. (1968). Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology. New York: Free Press.

Stocking, G. (Ed.). (1983). Observers Observed: Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

Stone, A. (1995). The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Strassmann, P. (1997). Information Systems and Literacy. In G. Hawisher & C. Selfe (Eds.), Literacy, Technology, and Society (pp. 134-141). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hill.

Stubbs, M. (1996). Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer-assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Stubbs, P. (1998). Conflict and Co-Operation in the Virtual Community: e-mail and the Wars of the Yugoslav Succession. Sociological Research Online, 3(3).

Tannen, D. (1984). Analysing Conversation. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Tannen, D. (1989). Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. New York: Cambridge University.

Tannen, D. (1995). Talking from 9 to 5 Women and Men at Work. New York: HarperCollins.

Tannen, D. (1998). Framing in Discourse. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Taylor, P. (1992). Social epistemic rhetoric and social discourse. In G. Hawisher & P. LeBlanc (Eds.), Re-imagining computers and composition (pp. 131-148). Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook.

ten Have, P. (1998). Doing Conversation Analysis: A Practical Guide. London: Sage Publications.

ten Have, P. (1999). Methodological issues in conversation analysis. Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique, 27(June), 23-51.

ten Have, P. (2002). Methodological Issues in Conversational Analysis. University of Amsterdam. Retrieved 22/03/2002, from the World Wide Web:

Thompson, J. (1995). The Media and Modernity: A social theory of the media. Cambridge: Polity.

Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R., & Vetter, E. (2000). Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.

Triandis, H. (1977). Interpersonal behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Tulloch, J. (2001). Watching Television Audiences: Cultural Theories and Methods. London: Arnold.

Turkle, S. (1982). Computers as rorschach. In G. Gumpert (Ed.), Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a media world. New York: Oxford University Press.

Turkle, S. (1984). The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Turkle, S. (1996). Virtuality and its discontents: Searching for community in cyberspace. The American Prospect, 24(1), 50-57.

Turkle, S. (1998). Cyborg Babies and Cy-Dough-Plasm: Ideas about Self and Life in the Culture of Simulation In Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots.  Robbie Davis-Floyd and Joseph Dumit (eds.). New York: Routledge, 1998.

Turner, L. (1994). “And if We Lose Our Name, then What About Our Land?’ or, What Price Development?” in Differences That Make a Difference, Examining the Assumptions in Gender Research, eds. Lynn H. Turner and Helen M. Stark. Westport & London: Bergin & Garvey. pp 151-162

Utz, S. (2000). Social information processing in MUDs: The development of friendships in virtual worlds. Journal of Online Behavior, 1(1).

Vacheks, J. (1966). The Linguistic School of Prague: An introduction to its theory and practice. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.

Vallis, R. (1999). Members' Methods for Entering and Leaving #IRCbar: A Conversational Analytic Study of Internet Relay Chat. In K. Chalmers & B. Bogitini & P. Renshaw (Eds.), Educational Research in New Times (pp. 117-127). Flaxton, Qld: Post Pressed.

Vallis, R. (2001). Applying membership categorization analysis to chatroom talk. In A. McHoul & M. Rapley (Eds.), How to Analyse Talk in Institutional Settings: A Casebook of Methods. (pp. 86-99). London: Continuum.

van Dijk, T. (Ed.). (1986). Handbook of Discourse Analysis (Vol. 4). London: Academic Press.

Vandergrift, K. (Ed.). (1987). Using Reader-Response Theory to Influence Collection Development and Program Planning for Children and Youth. Jefferson. MD: McFarland.

Veselinova, L., & Dry, H. (1995). Queries on the Linguist List: Acquisition of a Subregister's Paper. Paper presented at the Georgetown University 1995 GURT Conference, Washington, D.C.

Violi, P. (2000). Electronic dialogue between orality and literacy. A semiotic approach. Retrieved February, 16, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research (19), 52-90.

Warshauer, S. (1995). Aesthetic Approaches to the Design and Study of MUDs (Multi-User Domains) in English and Performance Studies: Interface, Realism and the Dialectic of Interacting. CWRL E-journal. Retrieved March, 23, 20001, from the World Wide Web:

Watson, J. (1930). Behaviorism. New York: W.W. Norton & Inc.

Watt, I. (1957). The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Wernick, A. (1991). Promotional Culture: advertising, ideology and symbolic expression. London: Sage.

Werry, C. (1996). Linguistic and interactional features of Internet Relay Chat. In S. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication:  Linguistic, Social, and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 47-63). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Whelan, L. (2000). EDT In Trent's Trench, on the MOO Connections. Using Online Environments to Explore Connections Between Gender and Language. Mt. Berry, GA: Berry College.

Whiteside, J., Bennet, J., & Holzblatt, K. (1988). Usability engineering: our experience and evolution. In M. Helander (Ed.), Handbook of Human Computer Interaction (pp. 91-817). North Holland, New York: Elsevier.

Whorf, B. (1940). Science and Linguistics. Technology Review, 42(6), 229-231.

Whorf, B. (1956). Language, thought, and readily. Boston: MIT Press.

Williamson, J. (1978). Decoding Advertisements; Ideology and Meaning in Advertising. London: Marion Boyars.

Winston, B. (1998). Media Technology and Society: a History: From the Telegraph to the Internet. London: Routledge.

Wittgenstein, L. (1965). Philosophical Investigations. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Wold, A. (1978). Decoding Oral Language. London: Academic Press.

Wood, M., & McGee, M. (1993). Categorial Grammars. London: Routledge.

Wray, D., & Medwell, J. (1991). Literacy and Language in the Early Years. London: Routledge.

Wrolstad, J. (2002). U.S Late to Global SMS Party Wireless News Factor. Retrieved April 01, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Yates, S. (1996). Oral and written Linguistic aspects of computer referencing: A corpus based study in Computer-Mediated Communication. LinguisticSocial and Cultural Perspectives. Amsterdam/Philadelphia.

Yee, T. (2000). In Defence of Chatrooms. Retrieved 2 November, 2000, from the World Wide Web:

Zakon, R. (1993). Hobbes' Internet Timeline. Retrieved March, 30, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Zholkovskij, A., & Mel'chuk, A. (1965). O vozmozhnom metode i instrumentax semanticheskogo sinteza. (On a possible method and instruments for semantic synthesis.) Nauchno-texnicheskaja informacija. Retrieved May, 19, 2001, from the World Wide Web:

Zimmerman, D. (1991). Structure-in-action: an introduction. In D. Boden & D. Zimmerman (Eds.), Talk and Social Structure:  Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press.